Zoko Enterprises

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Zoko Enterprises Ltd. imports and markets heavy mechanical equipment, and provides spare parts, project development and services in the fields of infrastructure, transportation, energy, water, industrial category and automotive.

Zoko Enterprises Group provides machinery and services to the Israeli Ministry of Defense (IMOD) and the Israeli military, with whom they work closely. The company is responsible for a large part of the Israeli military’s combat vehicles routine maintenance and provides professional training for the Israeli military.

Zoko Enterprises’ fully owned subsidiary, Tractors and Equipment (I.T.E) Ltd., is the exclusive supplier of Caterpillar heavy machinery for the Israeli military. The company retrofits Caterpillar heavy machinery vehicles for the needs of the military, including the installation of gunner positions and a bulletproof driver cabin to allow for battle use. Zoko company's personnel are responsible for the maintenance of the Caterpillar combat vehicles in use by the military. Adapted Caterpillar D9 bulldozers in use by the Israeli military include the unmanned remotely controlled D9 bulldozer "Panda" and the armored “Doobi” D9 bulldozer.

Caterpillar machinery has been in use for house demolition, settlement construction, and the construction of the Separation Wall in the occupied West Bank and fitted D9 bulldozers are used by the Israeli military to accompany military forces during invasions and military arrests in the occupied West Bank. Caterpillar products have also been used for creating roadblocks, dispersing demonstrations and as weapons, and are also used in military training taking place in the occupied Syrian Golan.

During the Israeli attack on Gaza in 2023-2024, D9 bulldozers have been extensively used in the military ground invasion of Gaza. D9 bulldozers have been documented in the streets of Gaza causing massive destruction to roads, buildings, private property, and infrastructure. Caterpillar machinery and the D9 bulldozers have also been extensively used in previous Israeli attacks on Gaza in 2021, 2014, 2008, and 2009, for large-scale house demolitions, land-clearing missions, and the construction of the wall surrounding the besieged Gaza. 

In November 2023, the IMOD placed an order for the purchase of additional bulldozers from the Caterpillar company through Zoko Enterprises. The bulldozers are to be fitted for the military and some will be adapted for autonomous or semi-autonomous operation.

In December 2023, amid the Israeli attack on Gaza, Zoko personnel were recruited to the Israeli military as a reserve unit where they serve as reinforcements for the army's Caterpillar D9 bulldozers' maintenance personnel. In 2009, Zoko Enterprises signed an agreement with the Israeli military that allows the recruitment of company personnel during combat to maintain Caterpillar D9 bulldozers in battle and grants the company's maintenance team the status of reservist soldiers, so that they can repair the machines during combat if necessary. As part of the agreement, when the Israeli military declares a state of emergency, the company becomes a military unit whose employees are recruited as a maintenance force and placed in the framework of their reserve service. During the Israeli attacks on Gaza in 2014, Company employees were deployed in the battlefront as part of their maintenance work.

For more on the use of Caterpillar’s equipment in the 2023-2024 Israeli attack on Gaza, see Who Profits’ report The Companies Supplying Weapons to Israel’s Attack on Gaza

Zoko has been involved in retrofitting and supplying specially designed manned and unmanned military D9 Bulldozers (Dawn Thunder), and the development of excavators for military use, such as the remote-controlled armored Caterpillar MiniCat MTL-257B.

Zoko Enterprises operates a training center that provides teaching, training and cooperation services to the Israeli Air Force, Combat Engineering Corps and Technology, Maintenance Corps and the Israeli Navy. According to the company’s website, the training is carried out by senior instructors from the Caterpillar Company.

For more on Caterpillar's involvement in the occupation, visit the company's profile.

Navistar International

Zoko Enterprises is also the exclusive representative of the American company, Navistar International. For decades, Navistar trucks have been in use by the Israeli military and include unit trucks, transport trucks, driving training trucks, towing trucks, track sweepers, rescue trucks, and others. Zoko Enterprises has a global maintenance agreement with the Israeli military to provide the military needs during routine and emergency situations.

In 2019, Zoko was contracted by the IMOD to supply heavy towing trucks for armored personnel carriers (APC) transportation, bulldozers and various cargo made by Navistar. The contract, which also included the maintenance of the tools and spare parts, was estimated at US$50 million.

In 2017, the IMOD purchased 90 tank carriers manufactured by Navistar, model International i5900, which were supplied to the IMOD through Zoko Enterprises, the company's representative in Israel. The purchase worth $28 million was made in the USA with Foreign Aid funds.

Also In 2017, the Israeli military purchased the 5,900 pull trucks manufactured by Navistar, for the pulling of the Israeli military Merkava tank. Zoko Enterprises retrofitted the pull trucks for the use of the Israeli military and oversees their maintenance.

Tatra Trucks

Zoko Enterprises holds the Israeli franchise for the exclusive marketing of the Czech company Tatra Trucks. As part of the franchise, Zoko has a service agreement with the Ministry of Defense to provide maintenance services for hundreds of trucks in the military’s use. Tatra trucks are used as military tactical trucks and have been used in the Israeli military’s Off-road Driving School in the main training and training base of the Logistics Corps.